September 2013

after 9/8/13 here, after 9/17/13 here

"Pull out a Montecristo at a dinner party

and the political liberal turns into the nicotine facist" Martyn Harris

 

 

 

Potter Creek's

Commercial Kitchen

 

 

 

The French School's

new courtyard and planting beds

 

 

 

 

 

On MU-R Mixed Use-Residential District Provisions from our City Code.

MU-R Mixed Use-Residential District Provisions

The regulations in this chapter shall apply in all Mixed Use-Residential (MU-R) Districts. In addition, general provisions contained in Sub-title 23C shall apply. 23E.84.020

Purposes

The purposes of the Mixed Use-Residential (MU-R) Districts are to:
A.    Implement the West Berkeley Plan's designation of a Mixed Residential District;
B.    Support the continued development of a mixed use District which combines residential, live/work, light industrial, arts and crafts and other compatible uses;
C.    Strengthen residential concentrations which exist within the District;
D.    Provide appropriate locations for a broad range of live/work activities to occur;
E.    Provide a transitional district between the residential districts to the east of the MU-R and the industrial districts to the west of the MU-R;
F.    Encourage light manufacturers and wholesalers which are compatible with a mixed use-residential district;
G.    Support the development of businesses of all types which contribute to the maintenance and improvement of the environment;
H.    Protect residents from unreasonably detrimental effect of nonresidential uses, such as noise, vibration, odors, smoke, fumes, gases, dust, heat and glare, to the extent possible and reasonable within a mixed use West Berkeley context;
I.    To the extent feasible, protect industrial uses, particularly light industrial uses, from unreasonable intrusions on their ability to operate lawfully;
J.    Permit retail and food service activities which are either limited and small scale, primarily serving persons living and/or working in the District, but not a citywide or regional clientele, or which are ancillary and designed to maintain and enhance the economic viability of manufacturers in the District.

Notice particularly PURPOSES F. and H!

 

 It is important to note that our district is "MIXED USE/RESIDENTIAL" not "MIXED USE/LIGHT MANUFACTURING" or "MIXED USE/COMMERCIAL."

An emphasis that in my 40 some years here has NOT REALLY been furthered.

And as to why.

First, it is my belief that city hall's primary interest in the West is a way to increase revenue. That is, to increase the tax base. Understandable, as it remains the "underused" part of Our Town. The most efficent way to increase revenue, or the easiest depending on one's view, is to encourage swift, massive change. Big biotech comes to mind. An important part of the mix, yet I believe that this process, not carefully monitored, can result in land, manufacturing, and/or business barons.

Then there's geography. The seat of power in Our Town is down-town-city hall, as far removed from the West as conviniently possible. "Out of sight, out of mind" it's said. City Hall's sometime misreading of our needs may be just that and not a conspiracy of the rich and empowered.

Corollary to this is that our council members are not paid a living wage, perhaps not even the minimum wage. If not comfortable, they need a real job and of necessity turn day-to-day operation over to staff. Not often an efficient arrangement.

Then we have the community activists, or former activists, who are in fact paid lobbyists for non-resident groups--artisans, business people, and manufactures come to mind. Ironically this group includes those who have the confidence of residents, though in fact are paid by others. You get what you pay for!

There's more--insufficient city staff, ineffective city division of labor, active commercial realtors, but this should do for now.

 

 

 

Light Industry at wikipedia.com.

Light industry is usually less capital intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented (i.e., most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries). Light industry facilities typically have less environmental impact than those associated with heavy industry, and zoning laws are more likely to permit light industry near residential areas. It is the production of small consumer goods.[1]
One economic definition states that light industry is a "manufacturing activity that uses moderate amounts of partially processed materials to produce items of relatively high value per unit weight".
Examples of light industries include the manufacturing of clothes, shoes, furniture, consumer electronics and home appliances. Conversely, ship building would fall under heavy industry.
Characteristics
Light industries require only a small amount of raw materials, area and power. The value of the goods are low and they are easy to transport. The number of products is high. While light industry typically causes relatively little pollution, particularly when compared to heavy industries, some light industry can cause significant pollution or risk of contamination. Electronics manufacturing, itself often a light industry, can create potentially harmful levels of lead or chemical wastes in soil due to improper handling of solder and waste products (such as cleaning and degreasing agents used in manufacture).

 

Seems pretty clear that light manufacturing in MUR in order to be in keeping with the West Berkeley Plan AND its codification MUST "Protect residents from unreasonably detrimental effect of nonresidential uses, such as noise, vibration, odors, smoke, fumes, gases, dust, heat and glare, to the extent possible and reasonable within a mixed use West Berkeley context."

And what are the practical consequences? It is apparent that commercial realtors have a particular responsibility to insure that when selecting clients for the MUR they make sure to "protect residents from unreasonably detrimental effect of nonresidential uses, such as noise, vibration, odors, smoke, fumes, gases, dust, heat and glare, to the extent possible and reasonable within a mixed use West Berkeley context."

And what if they don't?

When issuing use permits, the city has the same OR GREATER responsibility.

And what about those manufactures who already possess use permits?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9/2/13

Word on the street is that one of SE&L's favorite personalities/people is in line for

a Major Award

 

 

 

 

"Gel-based audio speaker demonstrates capabilities of ionic conductors, long thought limited in application" at phys.org with video.

"In a materials science laboratory at Harvard University, a transparent disk connected to a laptop fills the room with music-it's the 'Morning' prelude from Peer Gynt, played on an ionic speaker.

No ordinary speaker, it consists of a thin sheet of rubber sandwiched between two layers of a saltwater gel, and it's as clear as a window. A high-voltage signal that runs across the surfaces and through the layers forces the rubber to rapidly contract and vibrate, producing sounds that span the entire audible spectrum, 20 hertz to 20 kilohertz.

But this is not an electronic device, nor has it ever been seen before. "

 

 

 

 

Future of Farming

Prospero Robot Farmer, a video

 

 

 


"It's a Myth That Entrepreneurs Drive New Technology:For real innovation, thank the state" Mariana Mazzucato at slate.com.

link courtesy Bob Kubik

"Images of tech entrepreneurs such as Mark Zuckerberg and Steve Jobs are continually thrown at us by politicians, economists, and the media. The message is that innovation is best left in the hands of these individuals and the wider private sector, and that the state-bureaucratic and sluggish-should keep out. A telling 2012 article in the Economist claimed that, to be innovative, governments must 'stick to the basics' such as spending on infrastructure, education, and skills, leaving the rest to the revolutionary garage tinkerers.

Yet it is ideology, not evidence, that fuels this image. A quick look at the pioneering technologies of the past century points to the state, not the private sector, as the most decisive player in the game.

Whether an innovation will be a success is uncertain, and it can take longer than traditional banks or venture capitalists are willing to wait. In countries such as the United States, China, Singapore, and Denmark, the state has provided the kind of patient and long-term finance new technologies need to get off the ground. Investments of this kind have often been driven by big missions, from putting a human on the moon to solving climate change. This has required not only funding basic research-the typical 'public good' that most economists admit needs state help-but applied research and seed funding too.

Apple is a perfect example. In its early stages, the company received government cash support via a $500,000 small-business investment company grant. And every technology that makes the iPhone a smartphone owes its vision and funding to the state: the Internet, GPS, touch-screen displays, and even the voice-activated smartphone assistant Siri all received state cash."

 

Perhaps crowd funding changes this?

 

 

 

manufacturing in the MUR

Seems pretty clear that light manufacturing in MUR in order to be in keeping with the West Berkeley Plan AND its codification MUST "Protect residents from unreasonably detrimental effect of nonresidential uses, such as noise, vibration, odors, smoke, fumes, gases, dust, heat and glare, to the extent possible and reasonable within a mixed use West Berkeley context."

And what are the practical consequences? It is apparent that commercial realtors have a particular responsibility to insure that when selecting clients for the MUR they make sure to "protect residents from unreasonably detrimental effect of nonresidential uses, such as noise, vibration, odors, smoke, fumes, gases, dust, heat and glare, to the extent possible and reasonable within a mixed use West Berkeley context." And what if they don't?

When issuing use permits, the city has the same responsibility.

And what about those manufactures who already possess use permits?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8/3/13

Yesterday afternoon Merryll had a neighborhood and friends party to introduce her niece, Brigette

among all attending, our Pete and Geralyn were among the best dressed

Merryll's niece, a new Cal student, is sharing Merryll's home.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9/4/13

Ian McKellen lunched at 900 GRAYSON last week.

 

 

Paul D'Orleans, reader and motorcycle/vintage car authority emails of the three Chevrolets stolen from the Pebble Beach Concours.

I guess somebody needed Low Rider fodder... seriously, the only possible use for these cars is to ship them to Japan, which is pretty sophisticated business.  Chevys will raise a lot fewer eyebrows than Ferraris in customs, so perhaps that's what they've done.

best, Paul

 

Paul has the vintage motorcycle website, thevintagent

 

 

 

Gerard stopped by Monday and right away we started drinking beer and talking. Suddenly, he interrupted with "I want to show you something on the computer."

Understand in France Gerard served with the elite Le 8e régiment de parachutistes d'infanterie de marine.

Le 8e régiment de parachutistes d'infanterie de marine (ou 8e RPIMa) est une unité de l'armée française. Il a été créé le 28 février 1951 en Indochine, il s'appelait alors le 8e BPC (Bataillon de parachutistes coloniaux), ses soldats portent le béret rouge. Le régiment appartient à la 11e brigade parachutiste.

Le régiment tient actuellement garnison à Castres. Ses activités actuelles consistent en des missions de maintien de la paix et d'assistance aux populations, de maintien de l'ordre sous le contrôle de l'OTAN ou des Nations unies (Casques bleus). Il intervient partout dans le monde où les intérêts de la France et la sécurité de ses ressortissants sont menacés : Tchad, Liban, Nouvelle-Calédonie, Koweït, Rwanda, Gabon, Kurdistan, Zaïre, Centrafrique, Congo Brazza et RDC, Ex-Yougoslavie, Cambodge et plus récemment Macédoine, Kosovo, Côte d'Ivoire et Afghanistan. En Outre-mer, il assure la défense des intérêts français, des ressortissants et des pays qui sont liés à la France par des accords de défense. En Europe, il assure la défense du territoire national français au sein de la force d'action terrestre ou de la 1re armée. Ce régiment est activé sur court préavis.

 

What Gerard showed me on my Imac was his Para Regiment marching on Bastille Day, July 14, 2008.

"The song is a Chorale" said Gerard "Sometimes in France we sing it at Christmas time."

 

"Now all I have left is my knife and my red beret" Gerard said.

 

 

 

a regular reader emails

Nicotine fascism has its place in the democratic process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9/5/13

The Washington Post has a great selection of comics

on line

 

 

 

The Potter Creek Mussi Art Foundry's "Statue of Birmingham bombing victims heads to Alabama " is a story at wdef.com.

"A memorial to four girls killed in a racist church bombing in Birmingham 50 years ago is headed to Alabama from California.

A sculpture of the bombing victims is being shipped by truck from where it was created at the Mussi Artworks Foundry in Berkeley, Calif.
It's scheduled to begin the trek eastward on Wednesday, and the sculpture is supposed to arrive in Alabama by next week.

The piece will be installed and unveiled Sept. 14 at a downtown park near the scene of the bombing.
Organizers have raised more than $200,000 for the project but still need more money.

A bomb detonated outside 16th Street Baptist Church on Sept. 15, 1963, killing four black girls.
Three Ku Klux Klansmen were convicted years later, and one remains in prison."

 

 

 

"Female Raped at Gunpoint in People's Park" berkeley.patch.com.

"A female was accosted at gunpoint by a man in People's Park on Sunday night and raped, according to UC Berkeley police. Police are seeking the man, whom they said was acquainted with the victim."

 

 

"Someone etched a swastika and two phallic symbols on a housing complex door at the University of California, Berkeley, the third hate-related incident reported in the past three weeks"  by David DeBolt, insidebayarea.com.

 

 

 

"Riots not covered under Berkeley's health plan" dailycaller.com.

"Violent protesters at the University of California at Berkeley should consider themselves warned: riot-related injuries are not covered under the campus's health insurance policy.

For now."

 

 

manufacturing in the MUR

Seems pretty clear that light manufacturing in MUR in order to be in keeping with the West Berkeley Plan AND its codification MUST "Protect residents from unreasonably detrimental effect of nonresidential uses, such as noise, vibration, odors, smoke, fumes, gases, dust, heat and glare, to the extent possible and reasonable within a mixed use West Berkeley context."

And what are the practical consequences? It is apparent that commercial realtors have a particular responsibility to insure that when selecting clients for the MUR they make sure to "protect residents from unreasonably detrimental effect of nonresidential uses, such as noise, vibration, odors, smoke, fumes, gases, dust, heat and glare, to the extent possible and reasonable within a mixed use West Berkeley context." And what if they don't?

When issuing use permits, the city has the same responsibility.

And what about those manufactures who already possess use permits? Seems common sense that after repeated violations and warnings use permits should be pulled!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9/7/13

Hayao Miyazaki

Hayao Miyazaki' s latest film 'The Wind Rises' is a biography of Jiro Horikoshi. Horikoshi was the designer of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero-Sen*, arguably the finest fighter-plane of World War II.

 

"Miyazaki's latest film, The Wind Rises, is a fictionalized biopic of Jiro Horikoshi, who designed Japanese fighter planes during WWII. Though Miyazaki's famous and completely fantastical films were haunting, there is harsh reality to be confronted in The Wind Rises. [ yet there ] are visual flights of fancy here as glorious as anything Miyazaki's studio has created, . . .' "

 

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

When Ian McKellen breakfasted at 900 GRAYSON last week he had the Tom Boy, no eggs, sub tomatoes and Thursday this week, actor Colin Farrell had at lunch, a medium-well Grayson Burger.

 

 

 

 

 

our Sarah emails

Dearest Neighbors Anyone of you all have a chess set gathering dust in the corner of a closet? Milo and friends started playing this week and he is suddenly obsessed. I would like to play him (after I remember how) tomorrow and don't want to go looking for a set. Let me know. Many thanks, Sarah PS If your set is marble or hand carved - maybe not the sort of set we could borrow.

 

Councilman Capitelli's Oaks Theater email link here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9/9/13

"Materializing the Postdigital" an exhibit at New York's Museum of Arts and Design.



"About the Exhibition

Out of Hand: Materializing the Postdigital will explore the many areas of 21st-century creativity made possible by advanced methods of computer-assisted production known as digital fabrication. In today's postdigital world, artists are using these means to achieve levels of expression never before possible ­ an explosive, unprecedented scope of artistic expression that extends from sculptural fantasy to functional beauty. Out of Hand will be the first major museum exhibition to examine this interdisciplinary trend through the pioneering works of more than 80 international artists, architects, and designers, including Ron Arad, Barry X Ball, Zaha Hadid, Stephen Jones, Anish Kapoor, Allan McCollum, Marc Newson, and Roxy Paine. Represented will be some of the most compelling creations from the past decade ranging from sculpture and furniture to fashion and transport."

 

 

 

"UC Berkeley-designed chair cuts energy use with personal thermal control" at dailycal.org.

"In an attempt to replace costly, often uncomfortable large-scale ventilation systems, UC Berkeley researchers have designed a revolutionary thermal-control system to cut energy consumption while improving user comfort.

The personal comfort system, adjustable on an individual basis, will allow users to maintain a certain homeostasis in a range of office temperatures. This flexibility drastically reduces the necessity of overzealous air-conditioning and heating units, thus cutting energy usage in the building by almost one-third."

 

 

 

 

 

"Venice Film Review: 'At Berkeley' " variety.com.

"This unblinking study of academia offers a summation of sorts of Frederick Wiseman's exceptional career.

On the surface, 'At Berkeley' hardly breaks new ground: Frederick Wiseman's 38th institution-centered documentary presents yet another unblinking, very long-haul study of a hydra-headed organization, in this case the eponymous U. of California campus, an account so austerely democratic in its gaze that no one, from the highest-ranking figure to the lowliest freshman, is ever formally identified. And yet, the result is one of Wiseman's best, a summation of sorts of a career's worth of principled filmmaking from a director in his ninth decade. Pic will teach class at niche venues and on upscale channels worldwide.

As usual, Wiseman refuses to provide audiences with any contextualizing information through anything so vulgar as subtitle identification or talking-head exegesis about the institution at hand. Presumably he's working off the fair-enough assumption that the culturally literate viewers likely to be watching this will already know (or at least know how to use the Internet to find out) something about the university's history as a hotbed of student radicalism in the 1960s, its high-ranking academic reputation in the present day, and maybe even the economic challenges it faces due to severe budget cuts imposed in the last few years.

That last issue is given a thorough airing here, particularly in a scene where Berkeley's then-chancellor Robert J. Birgeneau (he retired in 2013) discusses with senior staff the severe reduction in funding by the state of California. Various voices explore the ramifications of this crisis, from educators and administrators justifiably worried about how this will affect Berkeley's commitment to excellence and public access, to teachers using the situation to stimulate political-science seminars, to poor students who will literally have less money in their pockets.

In the later hours of the docu, a protest march and occupation of the library are staged, and Wiseman wryly cuts between the passionate, speechifying students, high on the radical rhetoric they've just been learning in class, and the administrators responsible for handling the situation as they draft a response to an ill-considered list of demands and plan logistics in case things get out of hand. In the end, the kids all go home peacefully when the library closes and no one so much as breaks a nail. To paraphrase Bob Dylan, the times, they have a-changed.

At one point, former secretary of labor-turned-professor Robert Reich schools a classroom in the realpolitik of management and policy making, and it's not hard to see how this discussion, here and in other scenes where academics discuss organizational philosophy, is of particular interest to Wiseman. A law-school graduate himself, he's long studied institutions and their complex hierarchies - in high schools, courtrooms, military units and theaters, among many others - providing cinematic evidence of how macro-level theory and policy trickle down to the micro level of individuals in daily conflict or cooperation.

 

 

 

 

"Lots of upside to staying in downtown Berkeley:Weekend trip to San Francisco's East Bay includes a stay at the Hotel Shattuck Plaza. Restaurants, culture, parks are nearby" Irene Lechowitzky, latimes.com.

"Telegraph Avenue may be the spiritual heart of Berkeley and the University of California campus the focal point, but from a visitor's point of view, downtown is the ideal place to stay. It's close to everything and has its own vibe, with an eclectic hodgepodge of iPhone-wielding professionals, hippies young and old, students and the homeless. I stayed downtown for the weekend and met my friends Susan and Rich, who live nearby." 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MISCELLANEOUS RAMBLINGS

"Assembly passes bill to allow sex-abuse lawsuits" fresnobee.com.

"The state Assembly on Wednesday narrowly approved legislation that would open a one-year window for some victims of childhood sexual abuse to sue religious organizations and other private or nonprofit groups that employed their abusers.

The bill from Sen. Jim Beall, D-San Jose, is similar to a 2002 measure passed amid the Catholic Church sex-abuse scandal. It would lift the statute of limitations for a group of alleged victims who were 26 and older and missed the previous window to file lawsuits because of time and age restrictions.

The Catholic Church and victims' advocates have lobbied heavily on SB131, and lawmakers said there were unsuccessful efforts in recent days to work out disagreements over the legislation.

Beall's measure cleared the Assembly, 42-14, and now returns to the Senate for a final vote.

The National Center for Victims of Crime, which sponsored the bill, and other supporters say victims might take years to acknowledge they were molested. An alleged childhood abuse victim currently can file a lawsuit in California until they are 26 years old.

Catholic Church leaders and representatives of other organizations in opposition, such as private schools and the State Alliance of YMCAs, say the proposal to allow claims from those older than 26 is unfair because it does not allow those accusers to sue public institutions.

Assembly Republicans attempted to amend the bill to include school, universities and other public institutions but were defeated. They said the bill would not provide equal justice unless all victims of childhood abuse can seek relief, regardless of where their abuser was employed.

'If anyone deserves recovery, if anyone deserves another chance at this, everybody does,' said Assemblyman Don Wagner, R-Irvine.

Assemblywoman Nancy Skinner, D-Berkeley, who presented the bill Wednesday, said including public institutions would have required addressing a separate section of state law. She said she would like to see a separate bill to deal with that issue.

During her floor speech supporting SB131, Skinner said she was abused as a child and that it took her years to address what happened. The proposed legislation would give victims who had not yet come to terms with their experiences a chance to have their day in court, she said."

 

 

 

"California City Votes To Evict Homeless People From Longtime Dwelling" by Scott Keyes at thinkprogress.org.

·"For years, dozens of poor California residents have set up camp on a landfill in the San Francisco Bay, creating their own small tent community where they could rest their heads in peace.

That is, until the eviction notice came this week.

On Tuesday, the City Council of Albany, a city just north of Berkeley, voted 4-1 to begin enforcing an anti-camping ordinance on the Albany Bulb, a small offshoot in the San Francisco Bay that 61 people call home. Police will start enforcing the measure on October 1."

 

 

 

 

"ASUC Senate introduces four bills at first meeting of the year" at dailycal.com.

 

 

 

 

 

"Pot backers seek clarity on feds' marijuana policies" Joe Garofoli at sfgate.com.

"Tuesday is a day that marijuana supporters have been looking forward to forever: The second-ranking official in the Justice Department will answer questions from the Senate Judiciary Committee about U.S. marijuana policy, just days after the feds said they would have a hands-off policy toward the two states - Washington and Colorado - where recreational pot recently became legal.

For many, it's mind-blowing to have a discussion about the U.S. policy on marijuana - before the Senate, no less - after the previous political generation's single-minded admonition of 'Just Say No" when it came to pot.' " 

 

 

 


"Chronic Exposure to Air Pollution Linked with Heart Disease, Lung Cancer" at natureworldnews.com.

"Researchers have found that long-time exposure to ozone, a greenhouse gas prevalent in urban areas, can raise the risk of cardiovascular disease.
The study was conducted by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley and colleagues who also found a strong association between nitrogen dioxide and an increased risk of death from lung cancer."

 

END MISCELLANEOUS RAMBLINGS

 

 

 

 

 

 

8/24/13--~10:00 AM-SERIOUS irritant in in warehouse front, light head. 10:57 AM--SERIOUS, similar with "raw gas" odor. 1:28 PM--VERY SERIOUS, similar.

 

9/1/13--Off-and-on all day, irritant in in warehouse front, light head.

9/2/13--10:07 AM-- irritant in in warehouse front, light head.

9/3/13--4:14 AM-- irritant in in warehouse front, light head, cough attack. 8:52 AM--similar.

9/4/13--11:18 AM--irritant in in warehouse front, light head. 2:40 PM--similar.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

eternally useful links

 

You can find more information about our current weather conditions than is good for you at www.wunderground.com

Want to see weather coming in, going out, beautiful sunsets, and much, much more? Check out http://sv.berkeley.edu/view/ This very hip site was in an email from reader and contributor, Tony Almeida. Read Tony's Jimi Hendrix story on the only page that routinely gets more hits than Scrambled Eggs.

 

 

Richmond Ramblers' motorcycle club member, Cliff Miller emails a very

useful link

If you ever need to get a human being on the phone at a credit card company or bank, etc., this site tells you how to defeat their automated system and get you to a human being within a few seconds.

http://gethuman.com/

 

 

Best gas prices in 94710, as well as all of US and Canada, are here at gasbuddy.com

Kimar finds Costco routinely has the lowest price.

 

 

Bay Area home prices from sfgate.com

Bay Area foreclosures from sfgate.com


 

Our City Council update is here.

Our Planning Commision update is here

 

 

 

Our City of Berkeley Boards and Commissions page is here--redone and friendly.

 

 

All reports of crime-in-progress should first go to Berkeley PD dispatch--911 or non-emergency, 981-5900. THEN make sure you notify EACH of these City people.

The contacts are below:

Our Area Coordinator, Berkeley PD - 981-5774.

Ryan Lau, aid to Darryl Moore - 981-7120 rlau@ci.berkeley.ca.us

Darryl Moore, City Councilman dmoore@ci.berkeley.ca.us

AND check out BPD feature "Who are these Suspects."

 

 

 

 

ronpenndorf@earthlink.net

The original owner of all posted material retains copyright. The material is used only to illustrate.